Dyslexia is a medically diagnosed situation, in which differences in the brain lead to language-related difficulties in function. The typical dyslexic is of above-average intelligence.
Dyslexia was first identified as a disorder in 1896 in an article in the British Medical Journal, where it was described as ‘congenital word blindness’. Since then debate has raged over its diagnosis, cause and treatment.
For a condition experienced by up to 10 per cent of the population there is still an argument over whether it even exists. Dyslexia can be inherited and is more prominent in males. There is also a tendency for four per cent of all left-handed people to be dyslexic.
You can term it a neurological deficit. Most of our language skills are situated in the left brain. In dyslexics, it has been found to be arranged differently than in normal people. But it does not touch the intellect of the person.
One must understand, however, that a dyslexic person is not necessarily low in intellect. Such children are usually of normal and higher than normal intelligence but, very often, their true learning potential are not maximized for obvious reasons.
Most dyslexics are only identified when they start school, when they display poor reading skills due to their difficulty in identifying letters. They have problems joining the alphabets when reading and will tend to miss out words and even add or substitute words sometimes. They have poor attention skills and are poor copiers.